Analisis Penggunaan Antibiotik Pada Pasien COVID-19 Di Rumah Sakit “X” Malang

Rudy Mardianto

Abstract


Antibiotics are used to treat co-infection in COVID-19 patients during pandemic times. According to research data shows that cases of bacterial co-infection in COVID-19 patients are <5%. The accuracy of antibiotic selection, dosage, frequency of administration and length of administration are necessary to avoid nosocomial infection of resistant bacteria and lower the cost of treatment. The purpose of this study isto find out the quality of antibiotic use in COVID-19 patients in Malang "X" hospital.The study is descriptive retrospective with a cross sectional approach, data from medical records and pharmaceutical installations. The population is a confirmed inpatient of COVID-19.   The 258 samples who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria was obtained by purposive sampling method during October 2019 to March 2020. The results show patients 46-55 years (41%), male 64%, female 36%; moderate disease 17%, severe 83%; patients recovered 95%, died 5%; azithromycin (iv, p.o), levofloxacin (iv, p.o) is used 100%, Meropenem iv 86.05%; moxifloxacin p.o 14,37%; ceftriaxone iv 10.08%; cefixime p.o 3,49%; moxifloxacin iv 2.71%; cefotaxime iv 1.94%; cefadroxil p.o 0.39%; doxycycline p.o 0.39%. The right doses of azithromycin (iv; p.o) 100%, levofloxacin (iv; p.o) 100%. The right frequency of azithromycin (iv; p.o) 100%, levofloxacin (iv; p.o) 100%. The right duration of azithromycin iv 99.57%, levofloxacin iv 98.34%, azithromycin p.o 89.29%; levofloxacin p.o 100%. The conclusion of this research is the selection of azithromycin and levofloxacin is right, the right dose, the frequency of use is right, the right length of administration is right.

References


Çelik A, Yaman H, Turan S, Kara A, Kara F, Zhu B, et al. Clinical management of COVID-19: interim guidance. J Mater Process Technol [Internet]. 2020;1(1):1–8. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cirp.2016.06.001%0Ahttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.powtec.2016.12.055%0Ahttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfatigue.2019.02.006%0Ahttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.matlet.2019.04.024%0Ahttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.matlet.2019.127252%0Ahttp://dx.doi.o

Burhan E, Susanto AD, Nasution SA, Ginanjar E, Pitoyo CW, Susilo A, et al. Pedoman Tatalaksana Covid-19 Edisi 3 Tim Editor Perhimpunan Dokter Paru Indonesia (PDPI) Perhimpunan Dokter Spesialis Kardiovaskular Indonesia (PERKI) Perhimpunan Dokter Spesialis Penyakit Dalam Indonesia (PAPDI) Perhimpunan Dokter Anestesiologi dan Terap. 2020. 3–6, 88–89 p.

Pascarella G, Strumia A, Piliego C, Bruno F, Del Buono R, Costa F, et al. COVID-19 diagnosis and management: a comprehensive review. Vol. 288, Journal of Internal Medicine. 2020. 192–206 p.

Shereen MA, Khan S, Kazmi A, Bashir N, Siddique R. COVID-19 infection: Origin, transmission, and characteristics of human coronaviruses. J Adv Res [Internet]. 2020;24:91–8. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jare.2020.03.005

Vol A. Experts Warn Of Secondary Covid-19 Infections , Antibiotic Resistance. 2020;26:1–3.

Tyszka J, Kobos K, Tyszka A. Antibiotics Against COVID-19 and Mitochondria? Urgent Thinking Out of the Box. 2020;(April):1–10.

Antimicrobial resistance [Internet]. [cited 2021 Jan 23]. Available from: https://www.who.int/westernpacific/health-topics/antimicrobial-resistance

Staub MB, Beaulieu RM, Graves J, Nelson GE. Changes in Antimicrobial Utilization during the COVID-19 Pandemic after Implementation of a Multispecialty Clinical Guidance Team. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2020;2019:1–7.

Kuster SP, Ruef C, Ledergerber B, Hintermann A, Deplazes C, Neuber L, et al. Quantitative antibiotic use in hospitals: Comparison of measurements, literature review, and recommendations for a standard of reporting. Infection. 2008;36(6):549–59.

Chih-Cheng Lai, Cheng-Yi Wang, Po-Ren Hsueh. Co-infections among patients with COVID- 19: The need for combination therapy with non-anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents? J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 2020;53(January):505–12.

Lansbury L, Lim B, Baskaran V, Lim WS. Co-infections in people with COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Infect [Internet]. 2020;81(2):266–75. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2020.05.046

Sözen H, Gönen I, Sözen A, Kutlucan A, Kalemci S, Sahan M. Application of ATC/DDD methodology to eveluate of antibiotic use in a general hospital in Turkey. Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob. 2013;12(1):1–7.

Langford BJ, So M, Raybardhan S, Leung V, Soucy JPR, Westwood D, et al. Antibiotic prescribing in patients with COVID-19: rapid review and meta-analysis. Clin Microbiol Infect [Internet]. 2021;27(4):520–31. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cmi.2020.12.018

Hughes S, Troise O, Donaldson H, Mughal N, Moore LSP. Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID- 19 . The COVID-19 resource centre is hosted on Elsevier Connect , the company ’ s public news and information . 2020;(January).

Lian J, Jin X, Hao S, Jia H, Cai H, Zhang X, et al. Epidemiological, clinical, and virological characteristics of 465 hospitalized cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) from Zhejiang province in China. Influenza Other Respi Viruses. 2020;14(5):564–74.

Chen Y, Klein SL, Garibaldi BT, Li H, Wu C, Osevala NM, et al. Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID- 19 . The COVID-19 resource centre is hosted on Elsevier Connect , the company ’ s public news and information . 2020;(January).

Parohan M, Yaghoubi S, Seraji A, Javanbakht MH, Sarraf P, Djalali M. Risk factors for mortality in patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Aging Male [Internet]. 2021;23(5):1416–24. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1080/13685538.2020.1774748

Liu HQ, Yuan B, An YW, Chen KJ, Hu Q, Hu XP, et al. Clinical characteristics and follow-up analysis of 324 discharged covid-19 patients in shenzhen during the recovery period. Int J Med Sci. 2021;18(2):347–55.

Jin X, Lian JS, Hu JH, Gao J, Zheng L, Zhang YM, et al. Epidemiological, clinical and virological characteristics of 74 cases of coronavirus-infected disease 2019 (COVID-19) with gastrointestinal symptoms. Gut. 2020;69(6):1002–9.

Ramanathan K, Antognini D, Combes A, Paden M, Zakhary B, Ogino M, et al. Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID- research that is available on the COVID-19 resource centre - including this for unrestricted research re-use a. 2020;(January):19–21.

Li X, Xu S, Yu M, Wang K, Tao Y, Zhou Y. Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID- 19 . The COVID-19 resource centre is hosted on Elsevier Connect , the company ’ s public news and information . 2020;(January).

Hu B, Guo H, Zhou P, Shi ZL. Characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19. Nat Rev Microbiol [Internet]. 2021;19(3):141–54. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41579-020-00459-7

Rothe K, Feihl S, Schneider J, Wallnöfer F, Wurst M, Lukas M, et al. Rates of bacterial co-infections and antimicrobial use in COVID-19 patients: a retrospective cohort study in light of antibiotic stewardship. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2020;

Chen X, Liao B, Cheng L, Peng X, Xu X, Li Y, et al. The microbial coinfection in COVID-19. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2020;104(18):7777–85.

Sieswerda E, de Boer MGJ, Bonten MMJ, Boersma WG, Jonkers RE, Aleva RM, et al. Recommendations for antibacterial therapy in adults with COVID-19 – an evidence based guideline. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2021;27(1):61–6.

Gysin M, Acevedo CT, Haldimann K, Bodendoerfer E, Imkamp F, Bulut K, et al. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of respiratory Gram-negative bacterial isolates from COVID-19 patients in Switzerland. Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob [Internet]. 2021;20(1):1–10. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12941-021-00468-1

Seaton RA, Gibbons CL, Cooper L, Malcolm W, Mckinney R, Dundas S, et al. Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID- 19 . The COVID-19 resource centre is hosted on Elsevier Connect , the company ’ s public news and information . 2020;(January).

Sun TY, Sun L, Wang RM, Ren XP, Sui DJ, Pu C, et al. Clinical efficacy and safety of moxifoxacin versus levofoxacin plus metronidazole for community-acquired pneumonia with aspiration factors. Chin Med J (Engl). 2014;127(7):1201–5.

John SM, Panda BK, Bhosle DG, Soman N. Evaluation of cephalosporins utilization and compliance with reference to the hospital antibiotic policy of an Indian tertiary care hospital. Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol. 2019;8(5):1044.

Cong W, Poudel AN, Aihusein N, Wang H, Yao G, Lambert H. Antimicrobial use in covid-19 patients in the first phase of the sars-cov-2 pandemic: A scoping review. Antibiotics. 2021;10(6):1–14.

Alam MM, Mahmud S, Rahman MM, Simpson J, Aggarwal S, Ahmed Z. Clinical Outcomes of Early Treatment With Doxycycline for 89 High-Risk COVID-19 Patients in Long-Term Care Facilities in New York. Cureus. 2020;12(8).


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Penerbit: Forum Ilmiah Kesehatan (FORIKES) - Jl. Cemara 25, Dare, Sukorejo, Ponorogo, Jawa Timur, Indonesia.